Types of sunflower oil
Depending on the degree of purification, sunflower oil is divided into unrefined and refined.
1. Unrefined oil during the production period is subjected only to filtration, which allows to eliminate mechanical impurities and preserve biologically valuable components. This type of oil is the most useful, it has a dark color, rich color and a tart taste. Unrefined sunflower oil has a short shelf life, so after a long period it may precipitate.
2. Refined oil (purified) – goes through several stages of processing: hydration, neutralization, deodorization and freezing. After long-term processing heavy metals, pesticides, free fatty acids and other substances are removed from it.
As a result of cleaning, not only harmful substances are eliminated, but also useful and valuable components. Therefore, refined oil is recommended to be used only in cooking. Refined oil has a long shelf life, seemingly transparent with no pronounced odor and taste.
Refined sunflower oil is ideal as a culinary product for making sauces, mayonnaise, baking, frying, because it does not have a strong odor and bitter taste.
Wheat – types and uses
Wheat is used mainly for the production of flour, there are varieties that are used as cereals. From it make semolina and bulgur.
The flour obtained from the grains goes for baking white bread and producing pasta and other food products; Flour production wastes are used as feed for livestock and poultry, and recently, they are increasingly being used as raw materials for industry.
In flour produced from soft varieties, starch grains are larger and softer, its texture is thinner and crumbly, it contains less gluten and absorbs less water. This flour is used for baking mainly confectionery. Starch grains are finer and harder in flour made from durum wheat, its grain consistency is relatively high, and gluten is relatively high, so this flour is used primarily to bake bread.
Wheat Flour – Varieties
Wheat flour of the highest grade finely ground, has a white color with a slightly creamy tint. This type of flour is most common in the manufacture of high-grade flour products. Wheat flour of the highest grade has excellent baking properties. This flour is best used for shortbread, puff and yeast dough, in sauces and flour dressings.
Wheat flour of the first grade to the touch is soft, finely ground, white with a slightly yellowish tinge. Flour of the first grade has a rather high content of gluten, which makes the dough out of it elastic, and the finished products have a good shape, large volume, pleasant taste and aroma. Flour of the first grade should be used for flour products: rolls, pies, pancakes, national types of noodles, etc.
Wheat flour of the second grade is much darker than the first grade. Use this flour in the manufacture of some confectionery (gingerbread, cookies). Such flour contains a large amount of bran particles. Despite the fact that products made from such flour do not differ in the whiteness typical of products made from flour of the highest and first grades, they contain more protein, vitamins, mineral compounds and are characterized by good taste and a pleasant bread aroma. Second-grade flour is used mainly for baking table grades of bread and lean flour products.